For taking samples, you may visit our lab in Vienna or we send a testset including swabs cost free to your address.
Cells must be collected from the mucous membrane in the mouth cave:
buccal cells are taken by rubbing the inner side of the cheek with the cotton swab.
Neither eat nor drink the hour before taking the sample.
Do not use toothpaste, just wash the mouth cave with water.
Breastfed children must not have been nursed two hours before taking the sample to ensure that no cells from the mother remain in the mouth cave of the baby.
When you open the test tube do not touch the cotton swab with your finger.
To collect a sample, rub a swab on the inner wall of the cheek both sides, 4-8 times
each side so that sufficient mucous membrane cells adhere to the swab.
Repeat with the second swab for double analysis.
Allow the swab to air dry for about an hour.
Place the swab back in the plastic tube. Remember not to touch the top of the swab.
Label the tube with the name of the tested person and the date of sampling.
Send back the tubes registered to Confidence DNA-Analysen GmbH
1190 Wien, Formanekgasse 14/1, Österreich/Austria
Specimens should be sent back as soon as possible, they can be stored in the fridge for uo to 4 days.
Do not forget to include the signed contract and a copy of the identification
Identification, proof of identity and liability
We take samples only with the agreement of those concerned, and in the case of minors their legal guardian must give permission. The responsibility for ensuring this is left with the client.
Samples taken elsewhere and posted must be sent to us in the capsules we provide. These must be clearly labelled showing the name of the tested person as well as the date of sampling.
For our purposes, proof of identification must include a copy of your identification card with photo, for example, driver's license, passport or identification card, and the client's signature on the contract.
If you do not come to our lab personally, the results may only be used for personal information.
In the case of reports for personal information only, you are responsible for and guarantee the transmission of correct personal data.
When results are to be used for legal purposes, it is absolutely necessary to contact a registered legal representative like Nikolaus Grasern or Mrs Haas:
confirmation of identity will be performed by:
copies of identification cards with photo (driver's license, passport or identification card)
fingerprints, all persons to be tested will be photographed.
The customer must sign to confirm that the information about personal data is true and correct. He has full liability about the given data.
Individuals are clearly and uniquely characterised by their genome. Only identical twins have identical DNA and cannot be distinguished with this method.
Every human being has two sets of chromosomes- one inherited from his biological father and from the mother.
We compare DNA patterns from both of the parents (or from the alleged father only) with the child's DNA pattern and determine bio-statistically the probability of paternity with an accuracy approaching 100%.
Since the discovery of the structure of DNA in 1953, knowledge of the composition and organisation of genetic material has accumulated at an astonishing pace. By the early 1980s it had become clear that most human DNA shows very little variation from one person to another.
In 1980 one of the major breakthroughs in the study of DNA polymorphism was made with the discovery of the "hypervariable" regions of human DNA. These regions were found to consist of short tandem sequences repeated over and over again. It is a small percentage of the human genome that does vary, but Alec Jeffreys found that these repeat sequences, called "micro-satellites" are the basis for the hypervariable DNA pattern. This DNA pattern offers a truly individual-specific identification system.
STR (short tandem repeats) loci consist of repetitive sequence elements of 3 to 7 base pairs in length. These repeats are well distributed throughout the human genome and are a rich source of highly polymorphic markers which are detected using polymerase chain reaction followed by electrophoretic separation. Alleles of STR loci are differentiated by the number of copies of the repeat sequence contained within the amplified region.
In our laboratory at least 19 STR markers are used in kinship analysis for the comparison of the DNA, the gender–specific marker is Amelogenin. The investigation of up to 60 STR markers in our laboratory guarantees the utmost reliability and validity of results.
Paternity “practically proven” means a probability of genetic paternity of at least 99.99%, approaching 100%.
Exclusion of paternity is 100% - double checked cost-free for you by our routine double analyses (we always take 2 samples per person).
We recommend the mother to be tested in paternity tests for following reasons:
the pattern of the child's DNA is composed of 50% from the mother inherited and 50% from its biological father.
So, obligatory paternal alleles are identified with the mother's DNA. Exclusion constellations are assured by a minimum of 4 mismatched between alleged father and child and are more frequent when mother's DNA is also tested.
Last not least, every child is biologically identified by its mother's DNA.
Your analysis is performed exclusively in our laboratory in Vienna. At no time samples are sent away or analysed in another lab, and the stringent controls are used to ensure the validity of the results.
The process starts when you sign the contract and provide us with the samples of the test persons. Look at the button "sampling instructions".
Documents and samples can be sent by registered post to:
1190 Wien, Austria
Please decide in advance whether you order an expertise for judicial purpose or a report for private use.
Analyses is performed within 2 working days following receipt of the samples.
Processing steps are:
- Extraction of DNA from the cells
- Amplification of the DNA in a multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
- Fragment Analysis: fluorescence detection following electrophoretic separation
- Bio-statistical calculations, including frequencies that occur in the local population to determine the individual probability of paternity.
Reports are picked up personally and sent to you by postal service and/or e-mail optionally.
Our report is a confidential document with detailled description of your individual DNA-profiles and the interpretation.
Calculation of probabilities in consideration of population dependent frequencies of your genotype is included.
Ethical and judicial aspects
DNA-analysis produces an individual genetic profile based on information from STR-markers on certain regions of different chromosomes.
Kinship DNA testing is a well established routine procedure using techniques from molecular biology to identify genetic relationships.
The majority of the microsatellite loci we look at have no obvious function and we therefore do not gain any knowledge of personal qualities or a person's risk of disease.
We use DNA-profiles for comparison between people based on statistical calculations including frequencies of alleles in local populations.
Our DNA-analysis is usually based upon the question: “are two people biologically related to one another or not?“ (kinship testing), or "do two samples originate from one and the same person?" (identity testing).