These are different configurations of a gene. An Allele is represented by a number of repetition units (short tandem repeats) and is distinguished from another by fluorescent detection following electrophoretic separation.
Structures in the cell nucleus which contain hereditary information. A person possesses 2 x 23 chromosomes in all cells except germ cells. Schematic representation of chromosomes with the 16 markers used at the Confidence laboratory
Deoxyribonucleid Acid consisting of sugar, bases and molecules of phosphor. A person's genetic information is held in a double-stranded helix and stored in the chromosomes in the cell nucleus.
Desoxynucleosidtriphosphates these are the building blocks of the DNA. There are four different nucleotides: Adenin, Thymin, Cytosin and Guanin.<br />
A gene is a part of DNA. It is the information coding for a functional protein (Exon), it also contains non coding sequences as well as promoters, terminators and Introns.
The total genetic make-up of a certain organism.
See Short Tandem Repeats
The Polymerase Chain Reaction is a method for amplification of DNA-sequences using primers that bind to the flanking sequences of the STR-sequences. The multiplex PCR allows the co-amplification of 16 loci simultaneously. (see picture)
The reaction is performed in 20 to 28 thermal cycles. In this way approximately one million copies of the DNA fragments are produced.
First step: Denaturing of the double-stranded DNA at 94°C.
Second step: Specific Annealing of the Primers on the complementary single-stranded DNA at 60°C.
Third step: Chain Extension. This is the elongation of the primer by the heat-resistant enzyme called Taq-DNA-Polymerase at 70°C.
These are special sequences designed to bind to the regions on the DNA which are relevant to the analysis.
STRs - Short Tandem Repeats:
Short Tandem Repeats are repeating units of 3 to 7 base-pairs in Introns of the DNA. They serve as micro-satellites for the DNA-analysis. Comparisons between persons can be done because they are highly polymorphic and vary greatly through the population. This is why they are unique to each individual person. Only the flanking regions to which the primers bind are constant.
DNA Polymerase is a thermostable enzyme that was isolated for the first time from the bacterium Thermophilus aquaticus taken from hot water springs or geysers.
It replicates DNA at 74°C and catalyses the polymerisation of nucleotides into duplex DNA in the 5' to 3' direction (Primer extension reaction).