For collecting samples, you may visit our lab in Vienna or request for a testkit including swabs cost free to your address.
Cells must be collected by tips from the mucous membrane in the mouth cave:
buccal cells are taken by rubbing the inner side of the cheek with the cotton swab.
Neither eat nor drink the hour before. Do not use toothpaste, just rinse the mouth cave with water.
Breastfed children must not have been nursed two hours before to ensure that no cells from the mother remain in the mouth.
When you start collecting, do not touch the cotton swab with your finger.
To collect a sample, rub a swab on the inner wall of the cheek both sides, 4-8 times each side so that sufficient mucous membrane cells adhere to the swab.
Repeat with the second swab for double analysis. Place the swab back in the paper envelope. Remember not to touch the top of the swab.
Label the envelope with the name of the test person and the date of sampling.
Send back the samples to Confidence DNA-Analysen GmbH
1190 Wien, Formanekgasse 14/1, Österreich/Austria
Specimens should be sent back as soon as possible, they can be stored in the fridge for uo to 4 days.
Include the signed contract and a copy of the identification card.
Identification, proof of identity and liability
For our purposes, proof of identification must include a copy of ID card with photo, for example, driver's license, passport, etc. and the signature on the contract.
If you do not come personally, it will be stated in the report that the result is based on your provided samples. You are responsible for and guarantee the transmission of correct personal data. With your signature on the contract you confirm that the personal data are correct. You have full liability over the given data.
This report is valid as personal information, but may not be used for court.
If results are used for legal purposes, it is essential to let the expert witness of our team collect your samples and confirm your identity by:
copies of identification cards with photo (driver's license, passport or ID card), fingerprints, photos will be taken of all persons to be tested.
Individuals are clearly and uniquely characterised by their genome. Only identical twins have identical DNA and cannot be distinguished with this method.
Every human being has two sets of chromosomes - one inherited from each biological parent.
We compare DNA patterns from both parents (or from the alleged father only) with the child's DNA pattern and determine biostatistically the probability of paternity with an accuracy approaching 100%.
Since the discovery of the structure of DNA in 1953, knowledge of the composition and organisation of genetic material has accumulated at an astonishing pace. By the early 1980s it had become clear that most human DNA shows very little variation from one person to another.
In 1980 one of the major breakthroughs in the study of DNA polymorphism was made with the discovery of the "hypervariable" regions of human DNA. These regions were found to consist of short tandem sequences repeated over and over again. It is a small percentage of the human genome that does vary, but Alec Jeffreys found that these repeat sequences, called "micro-satellites" are the basis for the hypervariable DNA pattern. This DNA pattern offers a truly individual-specific identification system.
STR (short tandem repeats) loci consist of repetitive sequence elements of 3 to 7 base pairs in length. These repeats are well distributed throughout the human genome and are a rich source of highly polymorphic markers which are detected using polymerase chain reaction followed by electrophoretic separation. Alleles of STR loci are differentiated by the number of copies of the repeat sequence contained within the amplified region.
In our laboratory at least 19 STR markers are used for kinship analysis, Amelogenin is a gender–specific marker. Up to 60 STR markers are applied if necessary to guarantee the utmost security of results.
Paternity “practically proven” means a probability of genetic paternity of at least 99.99%, the calculation never reaches 100%.
Exclusion of paternity is 100% - double checked cost-free for you by our routine double analyses (we always take 2 samples per person).
We recommend analyzing the mother's sample for the following reasons:
the pattern of the child's DNA is composed of 50% from the mother inherited and 50% from its biological father.
Therefore obligatory paternal alleles are identified with the mother's DNA. Exclusion constellations are assured by a minimum of 4 mismatched between alleged father and child and are more frequent when mother's DNA is included in the analysis.
Last not least, every child is biologically identified by its mother's DNA.
Your analysis is performed exclusively in our laboratory in Vienna. At no time samples are sent away or analysed in another lab, and the stringent controls are used to ensure the validity of the results.
The process starts when you sign the contract and provide us with the samples of the test persons. Look at the button "sampling instructions".
Documents and samples can be sent by registered post to:
1190 Wien, Österreich/Austria
Please decide in advance whether you order an expertise for judicial purpose or a report for private use.
Analyses is performed within 2-3 working days following receipt of the samples.
Processing steps are:
- Extraction of DNA from the cells
- Amplification of the DNA in a multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
- Fragment Analysis: fluorescence detection following capillary electrophoresis
- Biostatistical calculation including frequencies that occur in the local population to determine the individual probability of paternity.
Reports are picked up personally and sent to you by postal service and/or e-mail optionally.
Our rmulti-page report is a confidential document with detailled description of your individual DNA-results.
Calculation of probabilities in consideration of population-dependent frequencies of your genotype is included.
Ethical and judicial aspects
DNA-analysis produces an individual genetic profile based on information from STR-markers on certain regions of different chromosomes.
Kinship DNA testing is a well established routine procedure using molecular genetic techniques.
The majority of the microsatellite loci have no obvious function and we therefore do not gain any knowledge of personal qualities or a person's risk of disease.
We use DNA-profiles to confirm kinship or identity based on statistical calculations within the local population of the test person.
Our DNA-analysis is usually based upon the question: “are two people biologically related to one another or not?“ (kinship testing), or "do two samples originate from one and the same person?" (identity testing).